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The abstract of the thesis.
The theme of the scientific work is «Saratov school of architects of the beginning of the XX-th century». The text part includes the introduction, three chapters, the conclusion, and as the bibliographic list.
In chapter one «Character of the Saratov school of architects of the beginning of the XX-th century in a context of the all-Russian and European development» is analyzed European, Russian and, in particular, the Saratov architecture of the beginning of the XX-th century.
The second chapter «Leading architects of the Saratov architectural school of the beginning of the 20-th century» gives representation about known Saratov architects of the beginning of the XX-th century (Mjufke, Zybin, Kolistratov, Ljukshin, Salko): periodizations of their creative biography and specificity of formation of architectural and art outlook.
In the third chapter «Architecturally-spatial features of creativity of architects» are considered by the Saratov architecture stylistics, proportions and architectural details of the buildings of the Saratov architects of the beginning of the XX-th century.
The structure of dissertational research reflects interrelation and sequence of achieving the aim and tasks.
Architectural theory is the act of thinking, discussing, or most importantly writing about architecture. Architectural theory is taught in most architecture schools and is practiced by the world's leading architects. Some forms that architecture theory takes are the lecture or dialogue, the treatise or book, and the paper project or competition entry. Architectural theory is often didactic, and theorists tend to stay close to or work from within schools. It has existed in some form since antiquity, and as publishing became more common, architectural theory gained an increased richness. Books, magazines, and journals published an unprecedented amount of works by architects and critics in the twentieth century. As a result, styles and movements formed and dissolved much more quickly than the relatively enduring modes in earlier history. It is to be expected that the use of the internet will further influence the discourse of architecture in the twenty first century.
Urgency of the research.
Creative heritage studying is actual in several aspects. First, in connection with necessity of historiko-theoretical judgement of a complete picture and a regional originality of architecture of Saratov of the XX-th century beginning. Secondly, as a historiko-theoretical basis of practical architectural designing, reconstructions and restorations architectural monuments of Saratov.
Boundary ХIХ – ХХ centuries, telling more precisely 1890-1910th, has designated in the history of art a new epoch and is critical. At this particular time there were qualitative changes in principles shaping and type of the organization of architectural system. At all variety of currents, in architecture of the given period it is necessary to stress modernist style.
There are a lot of exemplars rational and especially classical modernist style in Saratov, the reason for it was not only later occurrence (concerning Moscow and Petersburg), but also strong classical architectural tradition of the city. There are not a many of stylistic examples of a "pure" modernist style in Saratov. There are much more objects keeping principles of eclecticism with wide use of a decor of a modernist style. Modernist style is typologically presented in Saratov widely enough: it is extended both on inhabited, and to public, industrial and cult buildings.
In the given scientific work for the first time a complex analyse of the buildings of the leading architects of Saratov of the beginning of the XX-th century is done.
Purpose of the research is to define features Saratov architectural school of the beginning of the XX-th century.
Tasks of the research:
1) the reconstruction of a complete picture of Saratov architecture of the beginning of the ХХ-th century.
2) the analysis of the main buildings and revealing of the cores patterns in Saratov architecture of the beginning of the ХХ-th century.
3) the definition of the role and value of the Saratov school of architects of the beginning of the XX-th century in the context of the European and all-Russian development.
Subject of research is the creativity of the main representatives of the Saratov architectural school of the beginning of the ХХ-th century.
Objects of research are the remained monuments of Saratov architecture of the beginning of the ХХ-th century, projects of the lost construction.
Borders of the research. Territory of the Saratov region. The time period of research is limited 1890-1910th.
The technique of research is based on complex studying architecture of Saratov of the beginning of the ХХ-th century, including the analysis volume-spatial structures, revealing of features of constructive schemes, constructions of facades, a layout and an architectural decor. Work is based on a natural method of inspection of building, a photo fixing method, graph-analytic method of processing of a material, with the subsequent ordering and generalization results of the researches.
Scientific novelty of the research.
The theory of Gumilev plays an important role in the work. As a consequence there is a possibility to consider from various angles modernist style formation in the Russian architecture. The various points of view from which this point in question is considered are interesting. Namely: psychological and mental, the description of the distinctive moments in life of the architects, an estimation of character on the basis of Veller's power-vitalistic philosophy, the characteristic from the point of view of Gumilev's theory of passion. Attention is also paid to literary, political and economic, culturological aspects.
From our point of view, by great important is the fact that from the moment of creation the theory of ethno genesis and passionarity role in it, new mathematical methods (in probability theory, in the mathematical statistics and mathematical modeling) have been developed. They allow to estimate qualitative characteristics quantitatively, and also to develop mathematical models of influences of one characteristics on others. Therefore one of the prospective stages of the work – working out of criteria on which the passionarity of architects, on the one hand, and working out of criteria for an estimation of their creativity will be estimated, on the other hand. Further creation of virtual advisory councils (it can be organized on the Internet) which will make an estimation on the basis of the developed criteria. The final stage will be construction of mathematical models. That will allow «to verify the harmony by algebra » [Pushkin A.S. «Mozart and Salieri»].
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